Ethanol is a small two carbon alcohol that, due to its small size and alcoholic hydroxyl group is soluble in both aqueous and lipid environments. Ethanol is ethyl alcohol which is the same alcohol found in your glass of beer or wine. Some forms of gasoline are known to contain up to 25% ethanol. Demand has been impacted by changes in the production of plasticizer alcohols, which has shifted because n-butyraldehyde is less often produced from acetaldehyde, instead being generated by hydroformylation of propylene. Ethanol is also an important feedstock for the chemical industry. Natural tobacco polysaccharides, including cellulose, have been shown to be the primary precursors making acetaldehyde a significant constituent of tobacco smoke. Pathways of exposure include air, water, land, or groundwater, as well as drink and smoke. [56] According to European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety's (SCCS) "Opinion on Acetaldehyde" (2012) the cosmetic products special risk limit is 5 mg/l and acetaldehyde should not be used in mouth-washing products. It is used in the breathalyser test and to silver mirrors. Acetaldehyde (75-07-0) Substance Detail. It is also found in plastic water-based and matt emulsion paints, in wood ceilings, and wooden, particle-board, plywood, pine wood, and chipboard furniture. Acetaldehyde is an irritant of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, throat, and respiratory tract. Ethanol is a good fuel for use in spark-ignition engines. [43] In addition, acetaldehyde is damaging to DNA[44] and causes abnormal muscle development as it binds to proteins. Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in coffee, bread, and ripe fruit, and is produced by plants. Ethanol is a versatile solvent that is miscible with water and has other organic solvents, including acetone, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene glycol, chloroform, benzene, diethyl ether, glycerol, pyridine, nitromethane, and toluene. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. Light aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane and hexane, and aliphatic chlorides such as … Ethanol is a liquid fuel refined from Lumber. Traditionally, acetaldehyde was mainly used as a precursor to acetic acid. Ethanol, C 2 H 5OH, made from carbohydrates by fermentation and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene. Acetaldehyde, derived from mucosal or microbial oxidation of ethanol, tobacco smoke, and diet, appears to act as a cumulative carcinogen in the upper digestive tract of humans. acetaldehyde [as″et-al´de-hÄ«d] a colorless volatile liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors, which is irritating to mucous membranes and has a general narcotic action. The key difference between denatured and undenatured ethanol is that denatured ethanol is ethanol containing additives that make it unsafe to drink whereas undenatured ethanol is ethanol with no additives or denaturants.. Ethanol is an organic compound containing C, H and O atoms.The chemical formula of ethanol is C … ‘The aldehyde, ethanal (also called acetaldehyde), is the product of this reaction.’ It is also produced by the partial oxidation of ethanol by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and is a contributing cause of hangover after alcohol consumption. Ethanael is a name that's been used primarily by parents who are considering baby names for boys. The name change occurred at least as early as 1868. You might have heard isopropanol referred to as rubbing alcohol . Ethanol, which is sometimes known as ethyl alcohol, is a kind of alcohol derived from corn, sugarcane, and grain or indirectly from paper waste. Ethanol belongs to the primary group of alcohol. See also alcoholism. This process typically is conducted over a silver catalyst at about 500–650 Â°C.[21]. [13], Acetaldehyde was first observed by the Swedish pharmacist/chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774);[14] it was then investigated by the French chemists Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy and Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1800),[15] and the German chemists Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1821, 1822, 1832)[16] and Justus von Liebig (1835). [37] The impact on demand has led to increase in prices and thus slowdown in the market. Ethanol is a renewable fuel because it is produced from biomass. Denatured alcohol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) made unfit for human consumption by adding one or more chemicals (denaturants) to it.Denaturing refers to removing a property from the alcohol (being able to drink it), not to chemically altering or decomposing it, so denatured alcohol contains ordinary ethyl alcohol. *ethanal (*acetaldehyde*)* Colourless volatile flammable liquid (CH3CHO) manufactured by catalytic oxidation of ethene or ethanol, or catalytic hydration of acetylene. Ethanol is a type of alcohol, and the two are formed by the fermentation of glucose by enzymes in yeast. It is one of the most important aldehydes, occurring widely in nature and being produced on a large scale in industry. It is also the intoxicating ingredient of many alcoholic beverages. The Truth About Ethanol FuelsRelated: Is Premium Gas Worth It? One of the advantages of using ethanol is that it decreases our reliance on fossil fuels. [31] Acetaldehyde can condense with amines to yield imines; for example, with cyclohexylamine to give N-ethylidenecyclohexylamine. Dabit", "Döbereiner's Apparat zur Darstellung des Sauerstoffaethers", "Bildung des Sauerstoff-Aethers durch atmosphärische Oxidation des Alkohols", "Ueber die Producte der Oxydation des Alkohols", "Sur les produits de l'oxidation de l'alcool", "Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary", "1-(α-Pyridyl)-2-Propanol (2-(β-Hydroxypropyl)pyridine)", "Directed Aldol Condensations: β-Phenylcinnamaldehyde (2-Propenal, 3,3-diphenyl-)", "5-Ethyl-2-Methylpyridine (2-Picoline, 5-ethyl-)", "Acetaldehyde – Global Business Strategic Report", "Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers Concerning Acetaldehyde", "Acetaldehyde-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction May Be Alleviated by Vitamin B1 but Not by Vitamins B6 or B12", "NIDA – Publications – NIDA Notes – Vol. This photo-tautomerization is relevant to the earth's atmosphere, because vinyl alcohol is thought to be a precursor to carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. One common example occurs when a bottle of water is left in a hot car for a few hours on a hot, sunny day, and one notices its strange sweet taste in the water from the breakdown of the polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) container. Ethanol inhalation can cause coughing or headaches, according to the CDC. Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the grain or other biomass used to make the ethanol absorbs carbon dioxide as it grows. Ethanol or ethyl alcohol is considered broadly toxic and linked to birth defects following excessive oral ingestion. Sources of acetaldehyde include fuel combustion emissions from stationary internal combustion engines and power plants that burn fossil fuels, wood, or trash, oil and gas extraction, refineries, cement kilns, lumber and wood mills and paper mills. Ethanol is used in California Cleaner Burning Gasoline and the reformulated gasoline required in many of … [22] This reaction is catalyzed by mercury(II) salts: The mechanism involves the intermediacy of vinyl alcohol, which tautomerizes to acetaldehyde. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? Fermentation is the process that creates the alcoholic content in wine, and it is triggered when yeast reacts to fermentation and creates ethanol from the sugars present in the grapes. It can be used as an additive for diesel (biodiesel). What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? [34] This can cause confusion as "acetal" is more commonly used to describe compounds with the functional groups RCH(OR')2 or RR'C(OR'')2 rather than referring to this specific compound – in fact, 1,1-diethoxyethane is also described as the diethyl acetal of acetaldehyde. ", Genetic Influences on Alcohol Drinking and Alcoholism, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) information for acetaldehyde, Acetaldehyde production process flow sheet by ethylene oxidation method, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acetaldehyde&oldid=996703590, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 0.21 mPa-s at 20 Â°C (0.253 mPa-s at 9.5 Â°C), Dabit, a pharmacist in Nantes, France, performed a series of experiments and concluded that acetaldehyde was formed when hydrogen in ethanol combined with oxygen in sulfuric acid to form water: Dabit (1800). These symptoms may not happen immediately. Andet navn for ethanal er: Acetaldehyd. [11] Consumption of disulfiram inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby causing it to build up in the body. The Truth About Ethanol FuelsRelated: Is Premium Gas Worth It? [30], In a Strecker reaction, acetaldehyde condenses with cyanide and ammonia to give, after hydrolysis, the amino acid alanine. At 50 ppm acetaldehyde, no irritation or local tissue damage in the nasal mucosa is observed. The supply of butadiene has been volatile in Japan and the rest of Asia. Aside from that, ethanol attracts water, increasing the risk of rust forming on the interior engine parts. Acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), also called ethanal, an aldehyde used as a starting material in the synthesis of 1-butanol (n-butyl alcohol), ethyl acetate, perfumes, flavourings, aniline dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other chemical compounds.It has been manufactured by the hydration of acetylene and by the oxidation of ethanol … Dipole-dipole attraction occurs because ethanol is a polar molecule with both one positively charged and one negatively charged end. [57], Acetaldehyde is also created by thermal degradation or ultraviolet photo-degradation of some thermoplastic polymers during or after manufacture. Summary: 1. In the liver, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized into harmless acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is a potential contaminant in workplace, indoors, and ambient environments. This method is one of the oldest routes for the industrial preparation of acetaldehyde. It makes us less dependent on ethanol crops. [25][26], Acetaldehyde is a common electrophile in organic synthesis. Ethanol is also used as an antiseptic. [28] Grignard reagents and organolithium compounds react with MeCHO to give hydroxyethyl derivatives. Scheele, C. W. (1774) "Om Brunsten eller Magnesia nigra och dess egenskaper" (On brown-stone or black magnesia [i.e., manganese ore] and its properties). Ethanol also undergoes bacterial oxidation to ethanoic acid. These two oxidation reactions are coupled with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Ethanol causes damage to fuel systems and engines that pure gasoline does not. Acetaldehyde is carcinogenic in humans. Properties: r.d. [55], Many microbes produce acetaldehyde from ethanol, but they have a lower capacity to eliminate the acetaldehyde, which can lead to the accumulation of acetaldehyde in saliva, stomach acid, and intestinal contents. Ethanol is a non-fossil fuel that is produced from a variety of agricultural crops such as sugarcane and grains. [36] The last steps of alcoholic fermentation in bacteria, plants, and yeast involve the conversion of pyruvate into acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase, followed by the conversion of acetaldehyde into ethanol. Smaller quantities can be prepared by the partial oxidation of ethanol in an exothermic reaction. * 2010 January 26, , Ohio State of the State Address, 05:25–39: In 2007, not one drop of ethanol' was … However, ethanol is a toxic chemical and should be treated and handled as such, whether at work or in the home. E10, with a ratio of 10% ethanol to 90% gasoline, can be used in any internal combustion engine, and many oil companies already blend their fuels … Ethanol is chemically the same as drinking alcohol. [53][54] Acetaldehyde is also the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke; it is dissolved into the saliva while smoking. Nowadays most cars can run on an ethanol fuel blend of up to 10% which is the most … Ethanol is a powerful depressant that affects the central nervous system. So let's start right at the beginning : what is octane? Ethanol is a good fuel for use in spark-ignition engines. As with China, the Western European acetaldehyde market is expected to increase only very slightly at 1% per year during 2012–2018. Since then, ethylene is the dominant feedstock.[21]. English. Ethanol fuel is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 87.1% of the world's ethanol fuel production in 2011. Safety Practices when Handling Ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol is a flammable liquid. [12] Acetaldehyde is "one of the most frequently found air toxins with cancer risk greater than one in a million". Although gasoline … [50] As a result, acetaldehyde is "one of the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million".[13]. Ethanol is widely used as a fuel additive and as an engine fuel. It is a common solvent, of particular use because it is miscible in both water and organic solvents. Ethanol rewards you with up to 100% of your gas spent on each transaction forever in ethanol tokens only if you hold Ethanol tokens. Because the positive and negative charges are attracted to each other, the opposite poles of each molecule form bonds. It can be used as a Power source. Ethanol fuel, a gas additive, is everywhere! When used in fuel, ethanol is believed to reduce … But not everyone has a clear understanding of octane and how it affects the performance of their cars. Ethanol is added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions. Information and translations of ethanal in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ethanol [eth´ah-nol] a transparent, colorless, volatile, flammable liquid that is the major ingredient of alcoholic beverages. Antabuse is sometimes used as a deterrent for alcoholics wishing to stay sober. III "CCCBDB NIST Standard Reference Database". Traditionally, acetaldehyde was produced by the partial dehydrogenation of ethanol: In this endothermic process, ethanol vapor is passed at 260–290 Â°C over a copper-based catalyst. Ethanol is the only type of alcohol that can be consumed. This should provide the much needed boost to the flat market, as of 2013. Ethanol is a liquid fuel refined from Lumber. Both are different organic compounds. Ethanol also burns more cleanly and completely than gasoline or diesel fuel. [45], People with a genetic deficiency for the enzyme responsible for the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid may have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which a hydrogen (H) attached to carbon is replaced by a hydroxyl (OH); alcohols react with acids to form esters and with alkali metals to form alcoholates. 2. The main sources of acetaldehydes in homes include building materials, laminate, linoleum, wooden varnished, and cork/pine flooring. 3. Major use has been the production of acetic acid. 75-07-0)", "Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States", "Extrait du mémoire du cit. "These results indicate that the ALDH2 deficiency is a risk factor for LOAD [late-onset Alzheimer's disease] ..."[46], A study of 818 heavy drinkers found that those exposed to more acetaldehyde than normal through a genetic variant of the gene enconding for alcohol dehydrogenase are at greater risk of developing cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver.[47]. Like many other carbonyl compounds, acetaldehyde tautomerizes to give an enol (vinyl alcohol; IUPAC name: ethenol): The equilibrium constant is 6×10−7 at room temperature, thus that the relative amount of the enol form in a sample of acetaldehyde is very small. [17][18] In 1835, Liebig named it "aldehyde";[19] the name was later altered to "acetaldehyde". Alcohol is a clear, volatile liquid that is highly soluble in water. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a central nervous system depressant. n. a colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs [syn: acetaldehyde] Related phrases: ethanal trimer; See also: words rhyming with ethanal, words from word "ethanal… Acetaldehyde is an important precursor to pyridine derivatives, pentaerythritol, and crotonaldehyde. At -40 Â°C in the presence of acid catalysts, polyacetaldehyde is produced.[21]. The most critical problems are water contamination and fuel separation. 3", Nicotine's addictive hold increases when combined with other tobacco smoke chemicals, UCI study finds, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS OPINION ON Acetaldehyde, "Analysis of Chemical Leaching from Common Consumer Plastic Bottles Under High Stress Conditions", "Do Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde from Pet Bottles Result in Unacceptable Flavor or Aroma in Bottled Water? Ethanol fuel is a form of ethyl alcohol that is used mostly to power vehicles, as bio-fuel and as an additive for gasoline. Alcohol distributes into body water. Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3 CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me = methyl). The official definition of octane is: the measure of a … Antonyms for ethanal. Ethanol definition is - a colorless volatile flammable liquid C2H5OH that is the intoxicating agent in liquors and is also used as a solvent and in fuel —called also ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol. Because ethanol is a very pure form of alcohol, its consumption … Ethanal er efter formaldehyd (rettere methanal) den simpleste af aldehyderne. This finding emerged through the use of new chemical techniques that demonstrated the acetaldehyde present was causing DNA damage in laboratory settings. [48], In a study in France, the mean indoor concentration of acetaldehydes measured in 16 homes was approximately seven times higher than the outside acetaldehyde concentration. In the wet oxidation process, iron(III) sulfate is used to reoxidize the mercury back to the mercury(II) salt. Synthetic ethanol is readily synthesized from natural gas, coal, and ethylene, a by-product of petroleum. Moreover, the majority of humans spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, increasing any exposure and the risk to human health. ethanol. [33], Three molecules of acetaldehyde condense to form "paraldehyde", a cyclic trimer containing C-O single bonds. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Ethanol is a fuel that can be used for transportation needs that may replace up to 85% of the gasoline that is currently used in modern vehicles. Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3 CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me = methyl). Ethanol attracts and absorbs water, … [citation needed], It has been concluded that volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene, and xylenes have to be considered priority pollutants with respect to their health effects. Fermentation is the process that creates the alcoholic content in wine, and it is triggered when yeast reacts to fermentation and creates ethanol from the sugars present in the grapes. (en-noun) (organic compound) A simple aliphatic alcohol formally derived from ethane by replacing one hydrogen atom with a hydroxyl group: CH3-CH2-OH. Key Difference – Denatured vs Undenatured Ethanol. Also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, ethanol. Ethanol used for fuel has been denatured or rendered unsafe to drink by the addition of a hydrocarbon (usually gasoline). Likewise, acetic acid, once produced from acetaldehyde, is made predominantly by the lower-cost methanol carbonylation process. It is a natural product, made from corn, that is then refined into fuel. Metaldehyde is only obtained in a few percent yield and with cooling, often using HBr rather than H2SO4 as the catalyst. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is an organic compound that is found in all alcoholic drinks. The term “ethanol-blended fuel,” or E10, refers to fuel that contains 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline. The name Ethanael means Combination Of Ethan And Nathaniel and is of American origin. The perception threshold for acetaldehyde in air is in the range between 0.07 and 0.25 ppm. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol and abbreviated as EtOH, is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid that is soluble in water. 2. What are synonyms for ethanal? Ethanol is an important industrial chemical; it is used as a solvent, in the synthesis of other organic chemicals, and as an additive to gasoline. (wikipedia ethanol) Noun. Specifically , this alcohol as a fuel. Ethanol is sometimes called grain alcohol because it is the main type of alcohol produced by grain fermentation. "[42] In October 2009 the International Agency for Research on Cancer updated the classification of acetaldehyde stating that acetaldehyde included in and generated endogenously from alcoholic beverages is a Group I human carcinogen. Chemically, ethanol is composed of two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. “Capital” vs. “Capitol”: Do You Know Where You’re Going? Ethanol is a simple alcohol with the molecular formula C 2 H 5 OH. The main method of production is the oxidation of ethylene by the Wacker process, which involves oxidation of ethylene using a homogeneous palladium/copper system: In the 1970s, the world capacity of the Wacker-Hoechst direct oxidation process exceeded 2 million tonnes annually. [32], It is also a building block in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. Similarly condensation of four molecules of acetaldehyde give the cyclic molecule metaldehyde. What is Ethanol fuel? 2 kg/s Ethanol or Petroleum = 2 kW Power + 500 g/s Carbon Dioxide + 750 g/s Polluted Water Nosh Sprout domestic growth requires 20 kg/cycle Ethanol irrigation. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Although it has no unique medicinal value, it is regularly consumed for recreational purposes. The absorption of alcohol (ethanol) is decreased by food, especially fatty food. The drug disulfiram (Antabuse) prevents the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. After intravenous injection, the half-life in the blood is approximately 90 seconds. These imines can be used to direct subsequent reactions like an aldol condensation. Dabit sur l'éther", "Sur l'éther préparé à la manière du cit. [38], The threshold limit value is 25ppm (STEL/ceiling value) and the MAK (Maximum Workplace Concentration) is 50 ppm. The production of ethanol from petroleum ethylene is a simple one-step process. Ethanol may also be a carcinogenic; studies are still being done to determine this. It is also produced by the partial oxidation of ethanol Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, … Ethanol is often talked about as a high-octane fuel. [58] The water industry generally recognizes 20–40 ppb as the taste/odor threshold for acetaldehyde. [20], In 2003, global production was about 1 million tonnes. Alcohols are generally classified into primary, secondary and tertiary groups. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Quantitative Determination of Acetaldehyde in Foods Using Automated Digestion with Simulated Gastric Fluid Followed by Headspace Gas Chromatography", "Chemicals in the Environment: Acetaldehyde (CAS NO. the modern name for acetaldehyde. 4. 3. Acetaldehyde is also present in automobile and diesel exhaust. Fourcroy and Vauquelin stated that sulfuric acid was not consumed in the production of acetaldehyde: Fourcroy and Vauquelin (1800), This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 04:42. Petroleum Generator can burn Ethanol or Petroleum to generate Power. [21] At such concentrations, the fruity odor of acetaldehyde is apparent. Similarly noncompetitive, acetaldehyde arises from synthesis gas with modest selectivity.[21]. The most common use of Ethanol fuel is by blending it … Photo-induced keto-enol tautomerization is viable under atmospheric or stratospheric conditions. Blending ethanol with petrol oxygenates the fuel mixture so that it burns completely and reduces harmful emissions. It has been pointed that in renovated or completely new buildings, the VOCs concentration levels are often several orders of magnitude higher. Ethanol … Chronic ethanol use can cause increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, pneumonia and other infections. For example E10 means the gas mixture contains 90% gas and 10% ethanol. Ethanol is a non-fossil fuel that is produced from a variety of agricultural crops such as sugarcane and grains. If your language skills aren’t already top-notch, then this vocab quiz can get you up to speed! The reaction is conducted at 90–95 Â°C, and the acetaldehyde formed is separated from water and mercury and cooled to 25–30 Â°C. Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in coffee, bread, and ripe fruit,[10] and is produced by plants. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has listed acetaldehyde as a Group 1 carcinogen. A bioethanol burner is essentially the part of the bioethanol fireplace into which you need to pour your biofuel. The product, CH3CH(OCH2CH3)2, is formally named 1,1-diethoxyethane but is commonly referred to as "acetal". [29] In one of the more spectacular condensation reactions, three equivalents of formaldehyde add to MeCHO to give pentaerythritol, C(CH2OH)4. [40][41] In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer stated, "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde (the major metabolite of ethanol) in experimental animals. Ethanal har sumformlen: CH 3 CHO. Ethanol is a relatively low-cost alternative fuel that boasts less pollution and more availability than unblended gasoline. Conjunctival irritations have been observed after a 15-minute exposure to concentrations of 25 and 50 ppm, but transient conjunctivitis and irritation of the respiratory tract have been reported after exposure to 200 ppm acetaldehyde for 15 minutes. Acetaldehyde has been found in cannabis smoke. Excessive ingestion results in acute intoxication, with psychological, gastrointestinal, neurological, and motor abnormalities; ingestion during pregnancy can harm the fetus. 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